Markup is a term used in marketing to indicate how much the price of a product is above the cost of producing and distributing the product. It can be expressed as an fixed amount or as a percentage. There are numerous variations of each.

## As a Fixed Amount

assume:
retail list price = \$1.99 and the product cost is \$1.40
MARKUP = price - cost
1.99 - 1.40 = .59

assume the actual selling price was \$1.60
MARKDOWN = List price - selling price
1.99 - 1.60 = .39

INITIAL MARKUP = list price - cost
1.99 - 1.40 = .59

MAINTAINED MARKUP = sale price - cost
1.60 -1.40 = .20

## As a Percentage

Algebra:
Markup [itex]= x% = (x / 100) = .x[itex]
example: [itex]15% = (15 / 100) = .15[itex]
[itex](Original * Markup) + Original = Total[itex]

Using the distributive property of elementary algebra:
[itex]Original * (Markup + 1) = Total[itex]

Solved for Markup:
[itex](Total / Original) - 1 = Markup[itex]

Solved for Original:
[itex]Total / (Markup + 1) = Original[itex]

Markup is the decimal representation of the markup percentage.
Original is the original amount/price.
Total is the marked up amount/price.

Specific:
INITIAL MARKUP % = initial markup / sale price
.59 / 1.99 = 29%

MAINTAINED MARKUP % = maintained markup / sale price
.20 / 1.60 = 13%

MARKUP % ON COST = markup / cost
.59 / 1.40 = 42%

MARKUP % ON PRICE = markup / price
.59 / 1.99 = 29%

To convert from markup on price to markup on cost:
MARKUP ON COST = markup % on price / 1 - markup % on price
.29 / (1 - .29) = 42%

To convert from markup on cost to markup on price:
MARKUP ON PRICE = markup % on cost / 1 + markup % on cost
.42 / (1 + .42 ) = .29

PRICE = cost / 1 - markup % on price
1.40 / (1 - .29) = 1.99

COST = price / 1 + markup % on cost
1.99 / (1 + .42) = 1.40

PRICE = markup / markup % on price
.59 / .29 = 1.99

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