Sage
From Academic Kids

 This article is about the plant genus called sage. For the herb and spice Salvia officinalis see Common sage. For other meanings see Sage (disambiguation).
Salvia  

Salvia fruticosa  
Scientific classification  
 
Species  
Sage is a term used for plants of the genus Salvia of the mint family, Lamiaceae. When used without modifiers, sage generally refers to common sage (Salvia officinalis); however, it can be used with modifiers to refer to any member of the genus. This genus includes shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. Different species of sage are grown as herbs and as ornamental plants. The ornamental species are commonly referred to by their scientific name Salvia.
The closely related genera Perovskia and Phlomis are also known as sage; Russian Sage, (Perovskia atriplicifolia), native to the Crimea south to Afganistan and Pakistan, is grown as an ornamental plant because of its blueviolet sprays of flowers and its adaptability to either sun or part shade. It has a pleasant smell and is also grown as a bee plant, but is not consumed by humans. Jerusalem Sage refers to Phlomis fruticosa and other species of Phlomis.
Some species of the unrelated genus Artemisia are also referred to as sages, a shortened version of sagebrush, which is a more appropriate term for them. They generally taste vile and are not used in food preparation, although many of them are used medicinally. Smudge bundles are made with various greyleaved species of Artemisia and are misrepresented as "whitesage" smudges. The true whitesage is Salvia apiana, which has a delightful scent when burned.
Contents 
History
The sage varieties used as herbs stem from the Mediterranean and Asia Minor and Sage has been grown in Central Europe since the Middle Ages.
The name Salvia derives from the Latin 'salveo', which means 'to heal'. Indeed this herb is highly regarded for its healing qualities. An ancient proverb states, "Why should a man die who has sage in his garden?". The ancient Greeks used it to treat consumption, ulcers and snake bites.
The Romans considered sage to be a sacred herb and concocted a whole elaborate ceremony just to pick it. A sage gatherer would have to use a special knife (not made of iron as it reacts with the sage), have to have clean clothes and clean feet and a sacrifice of food would have to be made before he could begin. The Romans would use it for toothpaste; they also believed it to be good for the brain, senses and memory.
The Chinese also were quite partial to this herb. 17th century Dutch merchants found that they would trade one chest of sage leaves for three of their tea [1] (http://www.selfsufficientish.com/sage.htm).
Notable species
Aromatic sages
 Salvia apiana, White sage, California white sage, a perennial at home in the mountains of Southern California, sometimes found in the desert of southern Arizona
 Salvia candelabrum, a blueflowering scented sage
 Salvia clevelandii, Blue sage, Cleveland sage, Fragrant sage, with a very strong scent, found either delightful or disgusting
 Salvia clevelandii x pachyphylla x leucophylla Celestial Blue, Celestial Sage, Musk Sage. Hybrid between Cleveland Sage, Rose Sage, and Pozo Blue Sage
 Salvia fulgens, Cardinal sage, Mexican red sage, a redflowering perennial
 Salvia greggii, Autumn sage, a redflowered sage with a very strong scent
 Salvia lyrata, Lyreleaved sage, Lyreleaf sage, Cancerweed, a purpleflowering perennial
 Salvia officinalis, Common sage; this is the bestknown species of sage. There are several varieties
 Salvia pratensis, Meadow clary, Meadow sage, a blueflowering species
 Salvia sclarea, Clary (or Clary sage), a biennial sage with enormous (for sages) flower spikes, quite showy, used in teas
 Salvia spathacea, Hummingbird sage, a magentaflowering annual with huge leaves
 Salvia verticillata, Whorled clary, Lilac sage, a white or blueflowering perennial with the scent of Clary
Blue_SalviaKayEss1.JPG
Nonaromatic sages
 Salvia argentea, Silver sage, usually a showyflowered biennial, named for the color of its foliage
 Salvia azurea, Blue sage, Azure blue sage; this species has very big bright blue flowers
 Salvia coccinea, Blood sage, a scarletflowered tender perennial
 Salvia divinorum, Diviner's sage, a highly psychoactive variety
 Salvia farinacea, Mealycup sage, grown as an annual in temperate climates will survive mild winters
 Salvia guaranitica, grown as an ornamental plant and a bee plant, has brilliantly saturated blue flowers and is perennial to zone 7. It is one of the sages often known as hummingbird sage.
 Salvia horminum, (syn.: S. viridis) Painted sage, an annual with showy blue, pink or white flower bracts
 Salvia patens, a blueflowering annual
 Salvia splendens, Scarlet sage, a redflowering annual
 Salvia x superba, a purpleflowering perennial
Chia sages
 Salvia arizonica, Arizona sage, Desert indigo sage, a purpleflowering annual, native to Texas
 Salvia carnosa, a blueflowering annual, native to the Arizona desert
 Salvia columbariae, Chia, Chia sage, California chia, a blueflowering annual native to California desert
 Salvia polystachya, Chia sage, Chia seed
 Salvia potus, Chia.
Medicinal uses
Several types of Salvia are used medicinally:
 aromatic varieties (usually strongly scented leaves, also used as herbs)
 nonaromatic varieties (not considered medicinal, but many still have a scent)
 Chia sages
 Divinorum (Diviner's sage) is drug used for spiritual and recreational purposes.
Aromatic sages
The aromatic sages strengthen the lungs and can be used in teas or tinctures to prevent coughs. Less aromatic species of Salvia are runofthemill mintfamily antiinflammatories, which means that they can be used for pretty much any infection or inflammation, and will give at least some relief.
Common sage (Salvia officinalis) drunk as a cold tea will stop sweating, while the same tea drunk hot will produce sweating. Cold and hot teas will also either stop or enhance milk production.
White sage (Salvia apiana) is a very strong general antiinflammatory, used as tea or tincture. The tincture has a very nice scent and can be used as a perfume. This species is the famous whitesage of smudge sticks.
Pineapple sage (Salvia elegans, old: S. rutilans) is a tender perennial with pineapplescented leaves. Medicinally, this is perhaps closest to the scented geraniums, a sweetsmelling Pelargonium species.
Red sage (Salvia miltiorrhiza) is used medicinally in Traditional Chinese medicine.
Chia sages. The seeds of these species are used as bulk laxatives, much like the seeds of Psyllium (Plantago spp.) or linseed. Chia has been important in the diet of desert Indians. It is still used for its mucilaginous qualities by Mexican natives.
Diviner's sage (Salvia divinorum) also called Yerba de la Pastora or sometimes just Salvia, is a plant that differs from all the other sages. It is a Mexican visionary herb and there is some evidence it is a true cultivar. It is known to have strong psychoactive properties.
References
 A Book of Salvias: Sages for Every Garden by Betsy Clebsch, Timber Press, 1997, ISBN 0881923699 An excellent reference on salvias, and has been updated in 2004
External links
 selfsufficientish Sage  Salvia Officinalis (http://www.selfsufficientish.com/sage.htm) Organic growing advice
 ITIS 32680 (http://www.itis.usda.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=32680) 20020906da:Salvie (Salvia)
de:Salbei eo:Salvio fr:Sauge ja:サルビア pt:Salvia he:מרווה pl:Szałwia